Standard input devices such as a mouse and a keyboard in present computer-aided design systems do not provide users with direct and intuitive facilities for highly 3-D shape manipulation. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new interface system for 3-D shape manipulation by adopting a real elastic object as an input device. By deforming the device with bare hands with a tactile feedback, users can manipulate a 3-D shape modeled and displayed on a computer screen quite directly and intuitively. A prototype with a cubical input device made of electrically conductive polyurethane foam is also presented.

Credits: Murakami et al. 1995


Tamotsu Murakami and Naomasa Nakajima. 1994. Direct and intuitive input device for 3-D shape deformation. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’94), Beth Adelson, Susan Dumais, and Judith Olson (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 465-470. DOI:

Tamotsu Murakami, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Kazuhiro Oikawa, and Naomasa Nakajima. 1995. DO-IT: deformable objects as input tools. In Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’95), I. Katz, R. Mack, and L. Marks (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 87-88. DOI:

T Murakami, N Nakajima. 2000. DO-IT: deformable object as input tool for 3-D geometric operation. In Computer-Aided Design, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2000,
Pages 5-16, ISSN 0010-4485. DOI: